# The Times Tables

Video Crash Courses

Want to watch animated videos and solve interactive exercises about the times tables?

## What Is Multiplication?

Multiplication can be defined in the following way: Assume that you have a number a (where a can be any number). If you add a to itself b times, that can be written like this:

a+a+⋯+a⏟b times |

This can be tiresome in the long run, especially when b becomes large. That’s where multiplication enters the picture. By definition, the sum above can also be written like this:

a+a+⋯+a⏟b times=b×a |

This means that a added to itself b times is the same as a multiplied by b.

The numbers that are multiplied together are called factors, and the answer is called a product.

Rule

### Multiplication

factor×factor=product |

This might look a little odd—it might not be how you learned about multiplication before. So here’s an example to clarify.

Example 1

**You want to add 3 to itself 5 times**

This can be written as

3+3+3+3+3⏟5 times |

but if you use the definition above, it can also be written as

5×3=15 |

Multiplication problems with whole numbers (integers) between 1 and 10 are organized in the times tables. You should learn this table by heart.

Rule

### Three Important Rules for Multiplication

- 1.
- a×b=b×a. It does not matter what order the numbers are written in when you multiply—you get the same answer either way!
- 2.
- Anything multiplied by 0 is 0. For example, 5×0×20=0.
- 3.
- If you multiply something by 1, it doesn’t change. For example, 32×1=32.